A City Redefined: Anti-China Sentiment and the Rise of Localism in Hong Kong, 1988-Present

Leon Lam


This study explores the origin and development of anti-China mentality in Hong Kong since its first local election in 1988. Decades of rapid economic development established Hong Kong people's unique identity as the more capable Chinese. The self-perception of superiority coincided with the Handover in 1997. Robust trade between the city and China led to the fear of marginalization in the global stage. After the failed government campaign of "Asia's World City", Hong Kong witnessed growing hostility towards its Northern counterpart. The Umbrella Revolution in 2014 marked the start of direct confrontation against Beijing. While some radicals called for independence, the general public is divided on the future of the former British colony.


Hong Kong; Umbrella Revolution


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